Jacques de Revigny (+ 1296) : Le droit Romain comme moyen de façonner le droit français. But, could this rule be applied to this case? Only occasionally the verdict was “not just” or “lacking a reason”. That was probably what Revigny had in mind when he came with his question. law. [11] Cf. Wahrscheinlich ab den sechziger Jahren des 13. Als Student machte er sich 1260 einen Namen als Opponent des Gastprofessors Franciscus Accursii von der Universität von Bologna, den er in einem Disput zum Schweigen brachte. Is the creditor obliged to accept this payment? Son legs principal consiste dans ses près de 150 Répétitions portant sur l'ensemble du Corpus juris civilis. Dazu ist allerdings anzumerken, dass Révigny zeit seines Lebens ein reiner Rechtsgelehrter blieb, der sich auf das Studium der Texte beschränkte, sich aber von den politischen Realitäten fernhielt. Weiterhin war Révigny ein Befürworter einer französischen Königsmacht, wenngleich er im Gegensatz zu anderen Legisten seiner Zeit, wie beispielsweise Jean de Blanot, das Königtum in fest umrissenen Grenzen wissen wollte. I do not exclude that he had political consequences in mind, the English king being a vassal of the French king for large parts of the Midi. Bisannuelle depuis 2015, la revue publie non seulement des articles s’insérant dans le cadre de dossiers thématiques, mais aussi des articles scientifiques hors dossier rentrant dans le cadre de son projet éditorial. Zusammen mit Belleperche schrieb er Kommentare zu mehreren Teilen des später so genannten Corpus iuris civilis. Revigny has contributed to this by means of that same Roman law. The citizens and local potentates made his life a continuous battle to secure his episcopal rights. He says: a Roman last will contained the appointment of an heir. He had many pupils, among them, for a short time, that other luminary of this law school: Pierre de Belleperche. Auch sollte ein Baron einzig zur Verteidigung „seiner Heimat“ (Lehen) verpflichtet sein und nicht zur Verteidigung der „Heimat des Königs“ (das Königreich). Jacques de Révigny (en latin Jacobus de Ravanis), né vers 1230/35 probablement à Revigny-sur-Ornain, mort en 1296 à Ferentino, est un homme d'Église et juriste du XIII e siècle, professeur de droit romain à Orléans, créateur de l'école dite des « postglossateurs », évêque de Verdun de 1290 à 1296. ou [8] See K. Bezemer, What Jacques saw, op. À cette époque, à Orléans, les répétitions étaient hebdomadaires. Ce faisant, elle porte une attention particulière à l’importance d’une réflexion analytique et épistémologique permettant de contribuer au développement des débats et des échanges scientifiques sur l’histoire du droit, en France comme plus largement à l’échelle mondiale. La repetitio est le genre nouveau d'enseignement dans lequel s'exprime son apport (esprit de synthèse, approfondissement) à l'enseignement du droit[1]. Vous trouverez sur cette page les directives pour soumettre un article : Here are the guidelines for submitting an article : Le prochain numéro portera sur le thème suivant : According to Roman law, each of the heirs owes half the amount because it is a divisible debt. Number one: that in lay courts the losing party did not have to pay costs of litigation. How do you deal with customary law if Roman law is the subject of your teaching? Naissance : 123. cit., p. 124. It did not prevent that in the long term certain institutions of French law successfully resisted the pressure of Roman law. In my view it was French customary law that made Revigny, and the important man, defend an opinion that goes against Roman law. Pays : France. 6. Royal legislation was only rudimentary and the statutory law of cities did not get much chance to develop under the eyes of the officers of the French king. Immediately he was crossed by an important man, maybe a former student of Revigny, who said: Face it, young man, people holding your view have no text to speak for them. The most extreme option would be to reject any law that does not concur with Roman law as it was conceived at the time. How could this practice be reconciled with Roman law? Three customs, in particular, have filled Revigny with indignation [5]. Toutes les informations de la Bibliothèque Nationale de France sur : Jacques de Révigny (123.-1296) Während einer Reise nach Italien, wo er diesen Konflikt dem Papst vorlegen wollte, starb Révigny. Belleperche must have smelled the chance to gain a victory over the formidable Revigny. Jacques de Revigny (d. 1296): Roman law as a means to shape French law Jacques de Revigny (+ 1296) : Le droit Romain comme moyen de façonner le droit français (PDF - 138.5 kb) Ce papier décrit brièvement les arguments de Revigny pour développer la place du droit français dans ses commentaires sur le droit Romain. In France the thirteenth century was a period when many serfs (bondmen) were emancipated. Naissance des identités juridiques en Europe (IV, Rome and the Barbarians: the privilege of law, Freedom, warriors’ bond, legal book.The Lex Salica between Barbarian custom and Roman law, Late Roman Military Law in the Bavarian Code, Irish and Welsh Law in the European Contexts, The Legislation of Magistri Militum : the laws of Gundobad and Sigismund, Isidore of Seville and the construction of a common legal culture in early medieval Europe, The five paths to a judge : an interpretation of. These bad customs have in common that Revigny was not much inclined to deal with them with the usual legal methods of arguing. A way in between had to be chosen, realistic and critical at the same time. La Théorie De La Coutume Chez Jacques De Revigny Page 1 sur 8 - Environ 80 essais Droit savant et theories des sources du droit 912 mots | 4 pages SAVANTS ET THEORIE DES SOURCES DU DROIT La deuxième moitié du XI° siècle marque le début d’une profonde transformation du monde occidental. It was the work of the Dutch legal historian Meijers, however, which put Orleans back on the map as an important centre of legal culture [3]. Revigny’s Orleans heritage was incomparably more lasting. The debate, however, took a different turn. Time to conclude. Before I formulate some conclusions, I believe it is necessary to point out that Revigny’s tool box did contain more than the arguments presented so far. So he advanced the Roman law solution I just mentioned. Il mourut en Italie en allant soumettre la dispute au pape. I have to remark that Revigny was the first academic jurist who paid much attention to this custom, a tradition that was continued until the end of the ius commune period. I know only a few examples [10]. Revigny uses this argument in particular in the context of public law [14]. He did not have a good time there. In his days it must have been smaller. There are some well-known among them, and they would seem to belong to the droit commun de la France, the law common to all in the kingdom of France. 2. First and foremost: Revigny did not only use Roman law for its intrinsic meaning. Of greater importance are the customs apparently not limited to a certain territory. Revigny knew that the serfs of the Chartres chapter were not real slaves in the Roman sense. Book Elle peut ainsi accueillir vos propositions d’articles tout au long de l’année. 8. This was Revigny’s most personal involvement with local As a bacalareus still, Revigny became known as the person who had cornered a son of the Italian glossator Accursius during the debate following a guest lecture the latter gave in Orleans [1]. Revigny uses an argument a contrario (sensu). Therefore the text about the incompetence of women is not applicable to French last wills [6]. Il fut oublié aux époques suivantes, ses œuvres étant imprimées au XVIe siècle sous les noms de Pierre de Belleperche et de Bartole. La vérité judiciaire, https://univ-droit.fr/recherche/act... 15. 2,10,6]. [3] French translation in E.M. Meijers, Études d’histoire du droit, III, Leiden, 1959, p. 3-148. To prevent the exercise of this right, buyers sometimes made excessive and unnecessary expenditures on the estate. Actually, there are not many customs branded by him as corruptelae. In the end, he went to Rome to settle some of the disputes he had with his opponents. l. l. Labeo (D. 33,10,7) et ff. Révignys wichtigster Nachlass sind seine nahezu 150 schriftlich erhaltenen Repetitionen zum Codex Justinianus, den Digesten und den Institutiones, eine Gattung die stark zur Systematisierung und Vertiefung des gelehrten Rechts beigetragen hat. ), Amsterdam-Aalen, 2010, p. 26-27 and 34. It was an attempt to create space for a legal world that could not be ignored. He dies, leaving two heirs. [10] For an example, see K. Bezemer, “Later fortunes of a famous text. [12] For the following question, see Revigny at C. 4,38,13 (MS Paris BN lat. La théorie de la coutume chez Jacques de Révigny : édition et analyse de sa répétition sur la loi De quibus (D. 1, 3, 32). Sollte der König dies nicht erkennen, so Révigny, sei dies nicht sein Problem. Jacques de Révigny oder Jacobus de Ravanis (* 1230/40 wohl im lothringischen Revigny-sur-Ornain; † 1296 in Ferentino) war ein Rechtsgelehrter und Bischof von Verdun im 13. They simply fell outside his legal world for lack of an adequate reason. And to die, at Ferentino, to be precise. What does it mean if a lay person says “I want to buy or sell”? [6] On this argument, see K. Bezemer, What Jacques saw. Revigny even consulted theologians about this (foreign) custom, but they did not agree on its perniciousness to the soul of the first-born son. This is the first and last time that the name of this holy icon of French legal history will be mentioned here: his time was to come later, when Revigny had already expounded his theories and had made his ill-fated career move to Verdun. The method had its drawbacks: the parallel world of French customary law was built up from the outside. Als Erzdiakon in Toul wurde Révigny 1289 von Papst Nikolaus IV. When Pierre de Belleperche – the other Orleans luminary –, was still a bacalareus, about 1275, Revigny presided over an academic dispute for which he had devised the following question [9]. Keywords: Jacques de Revigny – Bologne – French customary law – retrait lignager, Mots-clés : Jacques de Revigny – Bologne – droit coutumier – retrait lignager. Read "Jacques de Revigny’s contribution to the concept of subjective rights and the origins of the maxim ‘ Ex facto ius oritur ’, The Legal History Review / Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis / Revue d'Histoire du Droit" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. This time, Revigny uses an analogical argument [7]. The last example I want to give is about an academic dispute that shows how in Orleans conflicting visions on customary law could clash with long lasting effects. There was even someone in the chapter – ignorant of Roman law, says Revigny –, who said that natural justice was against it. Avec Pierre de Belleperche, il fut l'un des principaux commentateurs français du Corpus juris civilis. Dies hatte einen andauernden Konflikt mit der Bürgerschaft von Verdun zur Folge, der seine gesamte Amtszeit prägte. His teachers were all French although one of them had received his doctorate in Bologna. 5. [4] On the subject, see K. Bezemer, “French customs in the commentaries of Jacques de Revigny”, Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis, 62, 1994, p. 81-112. Another way to take account of local ways was to consider the social position of the parties to a contract. Leiden Law School Leiden University. 10. Auteurs de l'article « Jacques de Révigny » : L'enseignement du droit pouvait prendre trois formes : le cours, la disputation et la répétition. It is time now to have a look at some customs not marred by this defect. Yet, he did not like such arguments, unless they had a firm basis in the texts of Roman law. 1 like. This may seem artificial, but it is an effective way to create space for contemporary practice. The dean wanted him to be reduced to slavery. This antiquarian approach would perhaps have appealed to some of Revigny’s students imbued with the classical tradition of Chartres, but most of them would have considered it as utterly impractical. Jacques de Révigny (en latin Jacobus de Ravanis), né vers 1230/35 probablement à Revigny-sur-Ornain, mort en 1296 à Ferentino, est un homme d'Église et juriste du XIIIe siècle, professeur de droit romain à Orléans, créateur de l'école dite des « postglossateurs », évêque de Verdun de 1290 à 1296. And the text put forward by the important man was, again, one of those analogical arguments used by Revigny to support French customary law. Revigny mentions customs of regions, of counties, of towns, and of other places, generally without any precise indication of the territory intended. Mort : 1296. A cloth merchant, for instance, had to give different, that is more information about his merchandise to a simple student about his merchandise, than to someone who was a professional buyer of cloth [13]. Is it only to express an intention for the future or is it an actual wish to be bound? So it depended on the division of the inherited property between the heirs who of them had to pay the debts. According to Revigny this had to be taken into account if a lay person used this expression. A former serf of the cathedral chapter of Chartres, who had become rich and freed himself from his bondage, had, so it is related, offended the dean of the chapter at a meeting. Thirteenth-century France through the eyes of Jacques de Revigny, professor of law at Orleans, Frankfurt am Main, 1997, p. 127 and 130. Bologna, 1967, fo. In several instances, he wanted to show how Roman law texts could be used to defend the sometimes very different rules of French customary law. Zusammen mit Pierre de Belleperche (Petrus de Bellapertica, † 1308) war Révigny einer der bedeutendsten Rechtsgelehrten des 13. zum Bischof von Verdun ernannt (Weihe 13. s. l. Cum delanionis § Asinam molendinarum (D. 33,7,18,2).”. 412 va/ ed. K. Bezemer, What Jacques saw, op. Jacques de Révigny (? Someone owes an amount of money. Er gehörte zu den Kommentatoren Leben. Because it is not without importance to know where somebody’s personal roots lie before an attempt is made to describe how Jacques de Revigny dealt with the legal situation in thirteenth-century France, first some basic data about Revigny. Pays : France. Salverda de Grave, Le Livre des droits de Verdun, Haarlem, 1940, p. 133-140. - 1296) Giurista e professore dell’università di Orléans, fu con Pierre de Belleperche [vedi] la personalità giuridica francese più importante del XIII secolo. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon, Artikel/Artikelanfang im Internet-Archive, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jacques_de_Révigny&oldid=190314550, Römisch-katholischer Bischof (13. La réputation de Jacques de Révigny fut établie par un épisode intervenu vers 1260 : au cours d'une dispute avec François Accurse, venu donner une leçon à Orléans, il triompha et réduisit le maître bolonais au silence. Responsabilité(s) exercée(s) sur les documents : Auteur. He was not a mere philologist who wanted to find out how exactly the ancient Romans had organized their society. Kees Bezemer He says: someone who has bought an estate liable to retrait lignager is like a pledgee who should know there is a fair chance that the pledge has to be returned to the pledger, who is not obliged to compensate unnecessary expenditures made on the pledge. Jacques de Révigny (123.-1296) : œuvres (4 ressources dans data.bnf.fr) Œuvres textuelles (3) La " Lectura" sur le titre "De actionibus", Inst. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 10. He did not yet make a clear distinction between the ideas of in particular Revigny and Belleperche, one of the reasons why investigations in this area are still rewarding. Ce papier décrit brièvement les arguments de Revigny pour développer la place du droit français dans ses commentaires sur le droit Romain. Jahrhunderts studierte er als Schüler des Jean de Monchy (Johannes de Monciaco) an der Universität von Orléans, wo sich zu dieser Zeit eine bedeutende Schule des weltlichen und römischen Rechts etabliert hatte. So, there is a very simple solution. März 1290), obwohl das Domkapitel einen anderen Kandidaten gewählt hatte. It was not. Après des études d'arts libéraux peut-être à Paris, il arriva à Orléans pour faire son droit entre 1255 et 1260 et fut l'élève de Jean de Monchy (Johannes de Monciaco), de Simon de Paris, de Guido de Cumis, de Guichard de Langres. Sexe : Masculin. Von Révignys Leben ist kaum etwas bekannt. Studies in honour of Eltjo J. H. Schrage on the occasion of his 65th birthday, H. Dondorp, J. Hallebeek, T. Wallinga, L. Winkel (eds. We have, partly in manuscript, partly in print, the reports of many of the lectures he gave on the body of Roman law. What he left there – apart from troubles - was a charter for its citizens [2]. Droit d'auteur : les textes des articles sont disponibles sous. 14350 fol. I have not yet mentioned it but Revigny sometimes used Aristotelian logic, especially when he wanted to analyse unclear sentences in the Roman law texts. [1] For the details, see F. P. W. Soetermeer, “Recherches sur Franciscus Accursii, ses Casus Digesti Novi et sa répétition sur la loi Cum pro eo (C. 7,47 un)”, Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis, 51, 1983, p. 3-49. Portrait of a legal puritan, Frankfurt am Main, 2005, p. 40-41. Bekannt wurde dabei seine Aussage, dass Frankreich von Rechts wegen nicht vom heiligen römischen Reich unabhängig sei und der französische König deshalb dem Kaiser unterstehe. Jacques studied law in Orleans, after having obtained the degree of magister artium, probably in Paris. Unmittelbar darauf erhielt er in Orléans einen Lehrstuhl als Professor, den er mindestens bis 1270 innehatte. Revigny was immediately attacked by more orthodox romanists such as Belleperche. Dans ses textes, il évoque une activité d'avocat qu'il avait à côté de son enseignement. 12. [9] See, K. Bezemer, Pierre de Belleperche. It is a special type of the argument by analogy. Les auteurs intéressés sont invités à consulter les modalités de soumission des articles (Soumettre un article). More important for our subject is the concept “common parlance” (usus communis loquendi). Revigny knew this very well, and he never, I repeat, he never said that a particular custom was not valid. [14] Cf. The troubles in Verdun continued after his death. Von Révignys Leben ist kaum etwas bekannt. Révigny, Jacques de [Nom de personne] Information (par souci de protection des données à caractère personnel, le jour et le mois de naissance ne sont pas affichés) Langue d'expression : Latin. Classical romanists may see this as an abuse of the holy texts of Roman law. It assesses his place in … Langue(s) : latin. Because the essential element of the Roman last will is absent, another rule may apply. 11. Originaire de Révigny dont la localisation en France n'est pas définitivement établie. A second custom, lacking any reason whatsoever, was the customary type of guardianship. The arguments Revigny used to legitimize French law did not necessarily form a coherent whole. Unfortunately for him, the knowledge of these faded away after the fourteenth century, which resulted in an almost total ignorance until the end of the nineteenth century, when some French historians began to recover the glorious past of the medieval universities of France. Jahrhundert), „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“, Rechtsgelehrter der Universität Orléans, Bischof von Verdun. K. Bezemer, Pierre de Belleperche, op. On the other hand, Roman law was not only a technical subject matter, it also stood for specific values not necessarily in accordance with French legal practice. [7] On this argument, see K. Bezemer, “Ne res exeat de genere, or How a French custom was introduced into the ius commune”, Rivista internazionale di diritto comune, 11, 2000, p. 67-115 (at 74-75). Why? The most conspicuous example being, of course, the King of France. Er gehörte zu den Kommentatoren. Le professeur choisissait une loi du. Revigny may have felt that way too, because – and this is speculative –, he may have been a descendent of people of servile condition. For instance, in France it was usual to speak of possessions when you meant real property [11]. Today it has little over three thousand inhabitants. Comme juriste, Jacques de Révigny fut un critique du droit coutumier en vigueur dans les provinces du nord de la France et un tenant du droit romain, importé à l'époque de la prestigieuse Université de Bologne. Auch wird ihm die Zusammenfassung des ersten Rechtswörterbuchs (Dictionarium iuris) zugeschrieben. Suppose one of the heirs offers to pay his half. cit., 127-128. This happened about 1260. He considered this a diabolical corruption and an intolerable error. The suggestion is that only this brother had to pay the debt because he was the one who had inherited the moveable property. The French law of Revigny is predominantly customary law [4]. It says that someone who has paid a debt for his brother and coheir, can claim the money back from that brother. This chapter surveys the most important facts about the life and works of Jacques de Revigny, a famous jurist from late-medieval France. Wahrscheinlich ab den sechziger Jahren des 13. Juli 2019 um 21:39 Uhr bearbeitet. Sometimes I have been able to locate a particular custom, often not. As of 1265 he began his career as a professor of Roman law in Orleans, with great success.
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